[Daily article] October 14: Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England was the invasion and occupation of
England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers, led by Duke
William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror. The
invasion culminated in the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066.
William’s claim to the English throne derived from his familial
relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor,
who died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold
Godwinson. After the Norwegian king Harald Hardrada invaded northern
England in September, Harold defeated and killed him at the Battle of
Stamford Bridge. Within days, William landed in southern England. Harold
marched south to confront him, but left a significant portion of his
army in the north, and was defeated and killed by William’s force at
Hastings. William faced rebellions for years, and was not secure on his
throne until after 1072. He confiscated the lands of the resisting
English elite, some of whom fled into exile. To control his new kingdom,
William gave lands to his followers and built castles commanding
military strongpoints.

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Today’s selected anniversaries:


American Civil War: In the Battle of Bristoe Station, the Union
II Corps was able to surprise and repel the Confederate attack on the
Union rear guard, resulting in a Union victory.


French inventor Louis Le Prince filmed Roundhay Garden Scene,
the earliest surviving motion picture, in Roundhay, Leeds, West
Yorkshire, England.


The worst mining accident in the United Kingdom’s history took
place when an explosion took the lives of 439 people at the Universal
Colliery in Senghenydd, Wales.


B. R. Ambedkar, a leader of India’s “Untouchable” caste,
publicly converted to Buddhism, becoming the leader of the Dalit
Buddhist movement.


After student protests against the Thai military government
turned to violence, King Bhumibol Adulyadej announced that Prime
Minister Thanom Kittikachorn had resigned.

Wiktionary’s word of the day:

(historical) An administrative and military centre for the Zaporozhian
and Danube Cossacks.

Wikiquote quote of the day:

  Character in many ways is everything in leadership. It is made up
of many things, but I would say character is really integrity. When you
delegate something to a subordinate, for example, it is absolutely your
responsibility, and he must understand this. You as a leader must take
complete responsibility for what the subordinate does. I once said, as a
sort of wisecrack, that leadership consists of nothing but taking
responsibility for everything that goes wrong and giving your
subordinates credit for everything that goes well.  
–Dwight D. Eisenhower

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