[Daily article] January 21: Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid

Muhammad ibn Tughj al-Ikhshid (882–946) was an Abbasid commander who
became the ruler of Egypt and parts of Syria from 935 until his death.
His Ikhshidid dynasty ruled until the Fatimid conquest of 969. In his
turbulent early career, he was imprisoned along with his father Tughj
ibn Juff by the Abbasids in 905, participated in the murder of the
vizier al-Abbas ibn al-Hasan al-Jarjara’i in 908, and fled Iraq to enter
the service of the governor of Egypt, Takin al-Khazari. He became
governor himself, and quickly defeated a Fatimid invasion. His reign
marks a rare period of peace and good government for early Islamic
Egypt. He vied with other regional strongmen for control over Syria,
without which Egypt was vulnerable to invasion from the east, but unlike
many other Egyptian leaders, he was prepared to bide his time and
compromise with his rivals. In 944 he received recognition of his
hereditary rule over Egypt, Syria and the Hejaz for thirty years from
Caliph al-Muttaqi of Baghdad. Ibn Tughj’s son Unujur succeeded him,
under the guardianship of the powerful Ethiopian eunuch Abu al-Misk
Kafur.

Read more:

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Today’s selected anniversaries:

763:

The Abbasid Caliphate crushed the Alid Revolt when one of the
rebellion leaders was mortally wounded in battle near Basra in what is
now Iraq.

1789:

The Power of Sympathy by William Hill Brown, widely considered
to be the first American novel, was published.

1941:

Sparked by the murder of a German officer the previous day in
Bucharest, Romania, members of the Iron Guard engaged in a rebellion and
pogrom, killing 125 Jews.

1972:

Tripura, part of the former independent Twipra Kingdom, became
a full-fledged state in India.

1997:

The U.S. House of Representatives voted 395–28 to reprimand
Newt Gingrich for ethics violations, making him the first Speaker of the
House to be so disciplined.

_____________________________
Wiktionary’s word of the day:

mundialization:
An ideology based on the solidarity and diversity of global citizens and
the creation of supranational laws, intended as a response to
dehumanizing aspects of globalization.

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Wikiquote quote of the day:

  No single law — no set of laws can eliminate evil from the
world, or prevent every senseless act of violence in our society. But
that can’t be an excuse for inaction.  
–Barack Obama

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