[Daily article] February 19: Brougham Castle

Brougham Castle, founded by Robert de Vieuxpont in the early 13th
century, is south-east of Penrith, Cumbria, England, on the site of
Brocavum, a Roman fort. The castle is scheduled as an Ancient Monument,
along with the fort, as “Brougham Roman fort and Brougham Castle”. The
Vieuxponts were a powerful land-owning family in North West England and
also owned the castles of Appleby and Brough. When the castle was built,
Vieuxpont was one of a few lords loyal to the king in the region. In
1264 his grandson, also named Robert, was declared a traitor and his
property was confiscated by Henry III. Brougham Castle and the other
estates were eventually returned to the Vieuxpont family. The castle
ruins were mentioned at the start of William Wordsworth’s poem The
Prelude, and were the subject of his Song at the Feast of Brougham
Castle upon the Restoration of Lord Clifford, the Shepherd, to the
Estates and Honours of his Ancestors. They also inspired a painting by
J. M. W. Turner. The castle was left to the Ministry of Works in the
1930s and is today maintained by its successor, English Heritage.

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Today’s selected anniversaries:

1600:

The Peruvian stratovolcano Huaynaputina exploded in the most
violent eruption in the recorded history of South America.

1811:

Peninsular War: An outnumbered French force under Édouard
Mortier routed and nearly destroyed the Spanish at the Battle of the
Gebora near Badajoz, Spain.

1942:

Second World War: In the largest attack mounted by a foreign
power against Australia, more than 240 Japanese aircraft bombed Darwin,
Northern Territory.

1942:

World War II: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed
Executive Order 9066, authorizing the forcible relocation of over
112,000 Japanese Americans to internment camps (Manzanar War Relocation
Center pictured).

2011:

Items from the Belitung shipwreck, the biggest single
collection of Tang dynasty artefacts found in one location, were first
put on display in Singapore.

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Wiktionary’s word of the day:

Dolly Daydream:
A girl or woman given to daydreaming.

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Wikiquote quote of the day:

  If perchance there should be foolish speakers who, together with
those ignorant of all mathematics, will take it upon themselves to
decide concerning these things, and because of some place in the
Scriptures wickedly distorted to their purpose, should dare to assail
this my work, they are of no importance to me, to such an extent do I
despise their judgment as rash.  
–Nicolaus Copernicus

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